Antimalarial drug resistance molecularmakers of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Sudan during 2015–2017

  • Published: August 20, 2020
  • Journal:PLOS ONE
  • Authors:Musab M. Ali Albsheera,b, Ayman Hussiena, Dominic Kwiatkowskic,Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamida, Muntaser E. Ibrahima,⁎


A contrasting genotype and allele frequency pattern between Africans and non-Africans in the Duffy (T-33C) locus is reported. Its near fixation in various populations suggest is no longer under natural selection, and that current distribution is possibly a relic of distant extreme selection combined with genetic drift during the out of Africa. We put this difference into the utility to infer the ancestral state of ambiguous loci in different populations. Methods: Sand flies were collected from two endemic villages in eastern and central Sudan using CDC light traps and sticky traps. The phlebotomine sand flies were morphologically and then molecularly identified. The source of blood meal of the engorged females was determined using a multiplex PCR methodology and specific primers of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA for human, goat, cow, and dog. The detection of the Leishmania parasite was done using PCR. Results:The total number of collected female phlebotomine sand flies was 180. Morphological identification revealed the abundance of Ph. orientalis 103 (57.2%), Ph. papatasi 42 (23.3%), Ph. bergeroti 31 (17.2%), Ph. rodhaini 2 (1.1%) and Ph. duboscqi 2 (1.1%) in the study sites. Out of the 180 collected, 31 (17%) were blood-fed flies. Three species were blood-fed and molecularly identified: Ph. papatasi (N = 7, 22.6%), Ph. bergeroti (N = 9, 26%), and Ph . orientalis (N = 15, 48.4%). Blood meal analysis revealed human DNA in two Ph. orientalis (6.4%), hence, the anthropophilic index was 13.3% Conclusion: The Duffy mutation (rs2814778) seems an insightful marker for African non-African ancestry and population admixture exemplified in admixture patterns in African Americans (Estalote et al., 2005) and some northern and east Africans. It would be interesting to use biomarkers such as Y-chromosome and/or mtDNA to quantify and inform on such admixture patterns of hypothesized mixed ancestry groups in continental sets and at the fringes of population interactions